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OSVALD SHMIDEBERG – IS A GENIUS, THE «FATHER» OF EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY

Biography. Oswald Schmiedeberg (1838-1921) was a son of a bailiff and a maid of honour, the eldest of the six children in the family. He was born and educated in the Russian Empire.

Scientific activity. All his life he was completely devoted to science, making experimental pharmacology an independent scientific discipline, and was able to bring it to the international level. O. Schmiedeberg studied the action of muscarine and nicotine, digitoxin, hypnotics and analeptics. He was the first to introduce the concept of “pharmacodynamics” and “pharmacokinetics” of a drug. With his participation, the world’s first pharmacological journal was founded, which is still published today.

Science school. Working for many years at the University of Strasbourg, Schmiedeberg managed to educate about 120 students – professors from 20 countries of the world, many of whom later founded experimental pharmacology in their countries, for example, Abel in the USA, and N.P. Kravkov in Russia. Scientific activity of Schmiedeberg influenced scholars of his time and for generations to come, creating the preconditions for new high-profile discoveries and even for receiving Nobel prizes. But Oswald Schmiedeberg failed to obtain this high award himself, though he had been nominated 14 times.

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Figures

Fig. 1. Oswald Schmiedeberg [3]

Fig 2. The Imperial University of Dorpat, 1860 [7]

Fig 3. Title page of the thesis by O. Schmiedeberg [12]

Fig. 4. Example of kymogram on smoked paper [20]

Fig. 5 The Institute of Pharmacology in Strassburg,1877 [21]

Fig. 6. Radialis pulse curves of R. Koppe before (upper curve) and after (lower curve; pulsus bigeminus) ingestion of3.5 mg digitoxin over five days [21]

Fig 7. Schmiedeberg with his disciples at a meeting to commemorate his 70th anniversary, Strasbourg, 1908 [21]

1. von Recklinghausen; 2. Reeb; 3. Cloetta; 4. Wallace; 5. Siegert;6. Heubner; 7. Fetzer; 8. Herlant; 9. Lindemann; 10. Faust; 11. Kobert; 12. Meyer; 13. Fühner; 14. Cervello; 15. Straub; 16. Jacobj; 17. Schmiedeberg; 18. Spiro;19. Hofmeister; 20. Harnack; 21. Muffat; 22. Heffter; 23. Cushny; 24. Huldschinsky; 25. His; 26. Minkowski; 27. Gottlieb; 28. Bethe; 29. Zinck.

Fig 8. O. Schmiedeberg with his disciples, 1905 [5]

Fig. 9 Title page of Archive of Experimental Pathology and Pharmacology, 1908. Leipzig [48]

Fig 10. Title page of O. Schmiedeberg’s book Grundriss der Pharmakologie in Bezug auf Arzneimittellehre und Toxikologie (Fundamentals of Pharmacology Through the Doctrine of Medicinal Substances and Toxicology) [49]

Fig. 11. Medal of Schmiedeberg [53]

DOI: 10.18413/2313-8971-2017-3-4-3-19
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