PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MONTMORILLONITE CLAYS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE (REVIEW)
The review is devoted to the medical application of montmorillonite clay minerals. Properties and mechanisms of action of enterosorbents. The properties of the enterosorbents include an absorption capacity and active surface. The mechanisms of action include the sorption of toxins in the gastrointestinal tract, the contact effect on the mucosa, enhancing the release of toxins in the gastrointestinal tract, increasing the metabolism and excretion of toxins. Physico-chemical properties of montmorillonite. Montmorillonite is a layered silicate from the smectite group, with the structure of 2:1. Its specific area is 173 m2/g and sorption capacity is 370 mg/g. The application of montmorillonite clays in medicine. Smectites are used as excipients, active substances or dispersants. Oral effects of smectite. The smectite based enterosorbents have antacid, mucocytoprotective, antidiarrheal effects, a high sorption activity against bacterial and viral particles. Analysis of the clinical use of the smectite based enterosorbents. Diosmectite has a high strength of recommendations and security (class B). The analysis is based on the results of the randomized clinical trials. According to different authors, from 22 to 84% of European doctors prescribe smectite for acute diarrhoea. Smectite reduces the duration of diarrhea by 22-42%, significantly reducing the number of bowel movements in comparison with placebo (p<0.001). The drug is well tolerated and has no side effects.