Today, considerable progress in the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment has been made due to development of targeted and immunotherapeutic approaches to the RCC treatment, especially in metastasising carcinoma. In the early stages of RCC, it is possible to use partial or total surgical nephrectomy, but in metastases development, the range of efficient treatment methods is dramatically limited. Appearance of targeted drugs like PD-1 and CTLA-4 receptors and their ligands’ inhibitors in clinical practice has significantly increased the total survival rate of patients with renal cell carcinoma. Emergence of adoptive cell therapy has opened new possibilities and prospects in RCC treatment. Previously activated in vitro cells are used there, which provides antineoplastic activity. For example, it could be antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), lymphokine-activated natural killers (LAK-NK-cells) and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). In this review, the authors specified the main molecular markers, associated with RCC; and signalling pathways (VEGFR- and EGFR-signalling pathway), which directly take part in carcinogenesis. The paper also looks at clinically applicable targeted immune drugs and the principle of their effect on tumorous cells. Besides, modern clinical studies of cell drugs have been considered. At the moment, there are a number of variants of targeted and immune drugs for the metastatic RCC treatment. Patients have no opportunity to use all the available agents because of their cost and toxicity level. For the most efficient treatment of patients with diagnosed metastatic RCC, it is necessarily to carry out risk stratification and prognostic factors for the response to treatment.


Table 1. Immune drugs in RCC are currently being clinically tested (Liu et al. 2017)

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