Amphotericin B from Antifungal to Antiviral Therapy: Promising Modern Therapeutic Branch
Introduction: Amphotericin B (AmB) which belongs to the polyene group has a wide spectrum in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity against fungi and parasites, but resistance to AmB is rare despite extensive use.
Material and Methods: Atotal of 2530 articles were investigated in PubMed (n = 1525), Medline (n = 705), and Google Scholar (n = 300). From 2530 articles, only 61 studies were included in this review. All the short and full articles were searched that were scheduled to be published until April 2020.
Results: After its discovery, AmB has been one of the most common first-line choices in treating systemic fungal infection for over seven decades from its discovery. Recently, some studies have focused on the potential antimicrobial action of AmB against some enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, and Rubella virus.
Discussion: Among the invading pathogens, viruses constitute the most common ones,Due to the continuous spreading of viral infections with the rise in death numbers, new therapeutics development is urgent, as in general, some lethal viruses have no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines. So, this review may serve as an impetus for researchers working in the field of medical microbiology, vaccination, and antiviral drug design by discussing the most recent information about the antiviral action of AmB, as well as trying to provide a deeper understanding of major properties, mechanisms of action, immune system responses, and antimicrobial efficiency of AmB.
Conclusion: Since AmB is expected to alter the structure of the viral envelope, membrane integrity of cells, and internal cellular organelles, besides its other unique properties, such as host immunomodulatory effects, this review suggested that AmB as an effective anti-fungi drug may hold the promise of formulating a novel therapeutic option to treat many dangerous viruses, including those for treating which there are no active drugs or vaccines.